Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event. Trauma is often the result of an overwhelming amount of stress that exceeds one's ability to cope, or integrate the emotions involved with that experience.[1] A traumatic event involves one's experience, or repeating events of being overwhelmed that can be precipitated in weeks, years, or even decades as the person struggles to cope with the immediate circumstances, eventually leading to serious, long-term negative consequences.

However, trauma differs between individuals, according to their subjective experiences. People will react to similar events differently. In other words, not all people who experience a potentially traumatic event will actually become psychologically traumatized.[2] However, it is possible to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after being exposed to a potentially traumatic event.[3] This discrepancy in risk rate can be attributed to protective factors some individuals may have that enable them to cope with trauma; they are related to temperamental and environmental factors. Some examples are mild exposure to stress early in life,[4] resilience characteristics, and active seeking of help.[5]      

Please Read More at:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychological_trauma

 

https://www.mentalhelp.net/articles/post-traumatic-stress-disorder/

This topic center concerns mental and emotional problems people experience in the wake of 'trauma', where trauma is understood to refer to an event involving being a victim of or witness to atrocity, violence, true horror and/or the death of another or near death of ones self. Examples might include rape, murder, torture, accidents, terrorism, etc. DSM describes two trauma disorders: acute stress disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder, both of which you may read about in the links to the left of this document. In a nutshell, acute stress disorder occurs in the time frame between just after exposure to a traumatic event to six months later, and posttraumatic stress beginning at the six month point and extending thereafter.

 

Please read more at the following link:  https://www.mentalhelp.net/articles/introduction-to-post-traumatic-stress-disorder/

 

 

Understanding Burnout, Professional Compassion Fatigue, and Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder From a Hospice and Palliative Nursing PerspectivePalliative and Hospice Professional Post Traumatic Stress

Melvin, Christina S. MS, PHCNS, BC, CHPN

Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing: February 2015 - Volume 17 - Issue 1 - p 66–72
doi: 10.1097/NJH.0000000000000126
Feature Articles
 

This article compares and contrasts the terms burnout, professional compassion fatigue, and secondary traumatic stress disorder as they relate to hospice and palliative care nurses. Burnout describes distress experienced by employees related to job expectations and working conditions. In the 1990s, the term professional compassion fatigue emerged to describe the weariness experienced by health care providers repeatedly exposed to seriously ill, traumatized, suffering, and dying patients. More recently, the term secondary traumatic stress disorder has been used to describe the reactions of health care providers who experience a traumatic event vicariously by caring for seriously ill and dying patients. Recommendations include early detection of burnout, professional compassion fatigue, and secondary traumatic stress disorder. Strategies to preserve the nurse’s ability to cope include developing supports, personal awareness, and refinement of resiliency skills, self-care strategies, assertiveness skills, debriefing sessions, spirituality, and the ability of the nurse to say no.

The symptoms, recommendations, and intervention strategies for nurses are described.

https://journals.lww.com/jhpn/Abstract/2015/02000/Historical_Review_in_Understanding_Burnout,.12.aspx

From:

https://www.psychiatryadvisor.com/ptsd-trauma-and-stressor-related/ptsd-can-be-predicted-following-the-death-of-a-loved-one/article/579576/

Certain risk factors can strongly predict the risk of a person developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the unexpected death of a loved one, suggests a new study in Depression and Anxiety

“Preliminary evidence suggests that unexpected death of a loved one-related PTSD could be predicted with good accuracy from data available shortly after the death, although this evidence is based on retrospective data and needs to be confirmed prospectively,” reported Lukoye Atwoli, PhD, MMed, MBChB, of Moi University School of Medicine in Eldoret, Kenya, and the University of Cape Town in South Africa, and colleagues. 

 

“The 5% of respondents with highest predicted risk included 30.6% of all cases of unexpected death of a loved one-related PTSD. This is 6 times the proportion expected by chance,” they reported. “These findings emphasize that [unexpected death] is a major public health issue and suggest that screening assessments might be useful in identifying high-risk individuals for early interventions.”

The researchers analyzed data from 19 World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys that involved 78,023 participants, representing a 70% response rate. The surveys came from the United States, Japan, and 7 Western European countries among the high-income countries. Middle-income countries represented included Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Lebanon, Peru, Romania, South Africa, and Ukraine. 

Of the respondents, 30.2% of them (2813 individuals) chose from 27 listed traumatic events that the unexpected death of a loved one was the one that triggered their PTSD. The specific survey question was, “Did someone very close to you ever die unexpectedly; for example, were they killed in an auto accident, murdered, committed suicide, or had a fatal heart attack at an early age?”

Please read the entire article here: https://www.psychiatryadvisor.com/ptsd-trauma-and-stressor-related/ptsd-can-be-predicted-following-the-death-of-a-loved-one/article/579576/

Subcategories

Post Traumatic Stress and how it Affects the Hospice and Palliative Professional

Understanding Burnout, Professional Compassion Fatigue, and Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder From a Hospice and Palliative Nursing PerspectivePalliative and Hospice Professional Post Traumatic Stress

Melvin, Christina S. MS, PHCNS, BC, CHPN

Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing: February 2015 - Volume 17 - Issue 1 - p 66–72
doi: 10.1097/NJH.0000000000000126
Feature Articles
 

This article compares and contrasts the terms burnout, professional compassion fatigue, and secondary traumatic stress disorder as they relate to hospice and palliative care nurses. Burnout describes distress experienced by employees related to job expectations and working conditions. In the 1990s, the term professional compassion fatigue emerged to describe the weariness experienced by health care providers repeatedly exposed to seriously ill, traumatized, suffering, and dying patients. More recently, the term secondary traumatic stress disorder has been used to describe the reactions of health care providers who experience a traumatic event vicariously by caring for seriously ill and dying patients. Recommendations include early detection of burnout, professional compassion fatigue, and secondary traumatic stress disorder. Strategies to preserve the nurse’s ability to cope include developing supports, personal awareness, and refinement of resiliency skills, self-care strategies, assertiveness skills, debriefing sessions, spirituality, and the ability of the nurse to say no.

The symptoms, recommendations, and intervention strategies for nurses are described.

https://journals.lww.com/jhpn/Abstract/2015/02000/Historical_Review_in_Understanding_Burnout,.12.aspx